Can Blockchain Be Made Even Better Without Consensus?

Consensus Algorithms and Their Limitations

Does the State Machine Need Consensus?

  • The TEA Project’s layer-1 keeps the trust data on the layer-2 nodes so that layer-2 no longer has to worry about Byzantine faults. The trust process is done through peer-to-peer remote attestation with the integrity of the layer-2 nodes vouched by their on-board TPM chips.
  • The TEA Project’s layer-2 nodes are therefore trustable. Trust is a really big deal as it allows our layer-2 nodes to use a different Root of Trust (RoT). Instead of having to rely on slow consensus algorithms as an RoT (Proof of Work / Proof of Stake / Proof of Whatever), the TEA Project’s layer-2 nodes use time as its RoT. Centralized computers have also used time as an RoT (e.g. Google Spanner), but it’s not widely used in blockchain as blockchain nodes generally can’t trust each other like centralized cloud computers can.

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