DApps Can Potentially Run Anywhere Thanks to TEA Project

An Overview of Existing Blockchain Protocols

Layer-0 Protocols

Layer-0 protocols are at the most meta-level, having a data layer that allows blockchains to run their own independent chains. Layer-0 protocols can be thought of as tunnels that allow communication between the different platforms on its own ecosystem. In a layer-0 ecosystem, layer-1s function like dApps, and all of these layer-1 “dApps” on a layer-0 are interoperable unlike with traditional layer-1s.

Layer-1 Protocols

Layer-1 protocols are like decentralized databases that allow dApps to be built on top of them. The biggest issue with layer-1s is scalability, and how congestion leads to prolonged transaction times as well as escalating gas fees.

  • Bitcoin is the original layer-1 blockchain, with smart contracts having since been added with the Lightning network’s layer-2.
  • Ethereum has the most users, developers, and TVL of all the layer-1s.
  • BNB Chain, Fantom, and Tron are all forks of Ethereum. BNB Chain, technically built on Cosmos, uses centralized validators for scalability and features cheaper gas costs compared to Ethereum.
  • Solana is another blockchain that focuses on scalability by sacrificing decentralization.
  • Avalanche boasts fast time to finality and EVM compatibility.
  • Cardano, arguably one of the more difficult blockchains to build for, recently introduced smart contracts.
  • Elrond built their own virtual machine not related to Ethereum.
  • Algorands relay nodes are permissioned and therefore centralized. Algorand’s chain is primarily built for large enterprises and governments.


A layer-2 solution involves a separate blockchain or network that sits on top of a layer-1 blockchain. Layer-2s typically help a layer-1 scale by offering a space to off-load execution of transactions and dApps that periodically syncs back up with the layer-1. End users get faster execution and lower fees without interfering with the decentralization of the base layer.

  • Polygon
  • Arbitrum
  • Optimism

What TEA Project Brings to Blockchain: A Compute Layer

We want to emphasize that the TEA Project’s layer-2 isn’t limited to only running smart contracts. DApps based on smart contracts can run on TEA’s layer-2, but why limit yourself to a go-kart when you can drive a race car? Developers can deploy full-speed rich applications on TEA, opening up a world of possibilities beyond traditional smart contracts.

  • The TEA Project development team writes a smart contract specific to the layer-1 that communicates with TEA’s layer-2 nodes.
  • The smart contract relays the trustability of the nodes on layer-2 when the nodes perform remote attestation to prove their trustability to each other.
  • DApps running on TEA’s layer-2 can run full-stack, full-speed as the ubiquity of trustable nodes means TEA can use non-traditional consensus on its layer-2.

Running DApps on TEA’s Layer-2 is Like Running Web Apps in the Browser

Imagine that a developer wants to have their app run on top of multiple operating systems. Developing for each operating system separately would add huge overhead costs. Development teams could instead deploy as a web app and have their app available to all operating systems via any web browser.

All these OS’s are available to any developer through the Firefox web browser



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